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Table 7 Tools for communication when long-term follow-up is available

From: How to talk with dying patients and their families after disasters and humanitarian crises: a review of available tools and guides for disaster responders

ABCDE (Rabow and McPhee 1999) A: Advance preparation—set a time, invite patient to include a support person, ask what the patient knows. B: Build a therapeutic environment/relationship—find a private, quiet place, reassure about suffering and non-abandonment. C: Communicate well—be direct, avoid jargon, allow for silence. D: Deal with patient and family reactions—listen actively, explore feelings, express empathy. E: Encourage and validate emotions—correct distortions, assess the effect of the news, address further needs, arrange follow-up.
BREAKS (Narayanan et al. 2010) B: Background, know the background of the patient/family and understand the clinical problem. R: Rapport, build rapport, provide time. For discussion E: Explore, what does the patient know. Include other family or support with patient’s permission. A: Announce, give a warning shot, then deliver the news using straightforwardlanguage. K: Kindling, address emotions. S: Summarize, give a summary of the session and set up treatment/care plans.
GUIDE (Back 2013) G: Get ready—gather data, set up a private and quiet location, ask who needs to be at the meeting. U: Understand—ask the patient what they already know, then listen. I: Inform—deliver the news in a single sentence, then listen. D: Deepen—observe and acknowledge emotions; tolerate silence E: Equip—map out the next steps. Describe treatment options and follow-up.