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Table 3 Number of consulted research questions for each category, including examples of research questions

From: Research agenda-setting on cash programming for health and nutrition in humanitarian settings

Categories of research areas Number of times covered in research questions (%)a Examples of research questions
Health and nutrition outcomes 44 (23%) How can CTP best be designed so that they will have a positive effect on child nutritional status?
Comparison modalities 36 (19%) How can use of CTP instead of delivering in-kind improve health and nutrition indicators in LMICS?
Unconditional cash 36 (19%) Does the inclusion of an average health cost in the Minimum Expenditure Basket improve the health of beneficiaries?
(Cost) effectiveness 32 (17%) How does the effectiveness of different cash modalities and payment mechanisms to tackle nutrition/health issues compare?
Access to and utilisation of care and goods 29 (15%) What effect do cash transfers have on accessing and utilising health services?
Pathways 27 (14%) How do cash transfers work to protect undernutrition in humanitarian crisis?
Methodologies and indicators 24 (13%) What are appropriate methodologies to research cash for health in humanitarian crises?
Demands and needs of cash beneficiaries 16 (8%) Do people affected by conflict prefer cash or in-kind support for the treatment of their children or family members?
Appropriateness of cash in response 16 (8%) What is the appropriate place for cash-based assistance as one response option to deliver health programming?
Conditional cash 12 (6%) Does labelling a cash grant for nutrition have the same impact as a conditional cash grant for nutrition?
Types of diseases or health issues 12 (6%) How do various types of cash transfers affect nutrition, HIV, and maternal health?
Vouchers 11 (6%) What is the evidence that cash or vouchers may incentivise care or utilisation?
Behaviour change 11 (6%) Can CTP be used to incentivise health outcomes and/or health behaviours?
Context 9 (5%) In what type of contexts are different cash transfer modalities likely to work?
Social and financial protection 9 (5%) How can social protection nets be developed for health or nutrition?
Sustainability and link development 9 (5%) What are the longer-term effects of cash transfers on undernutrition?
Quality of care 7 (4%) How can quality of care be guaranteed during CTP?
Health and nutrition systems 6 (3%) How do different cash modalities strengthen the health system and contribute to longer term equitable health financing?
Health system and market preconditions 6 (3%) What health system preconditions are necessary for the implementation of cash for health and nutrition programming?
Amount of cash 3 (2%) How does the amount of the cash transfer affect its impact upon undernutrition?
Influence on gender roles 3 (2%) Do cash transfers positively or negatively affect gender roles?
Empowerment 2 (1%) How do cash transfers compare to specific patient free health vouchers in terms of empowerment of patients?
Total 189 (100%)a  
  1. aEach research question could be coded with multiple categories (and up to four). In total, 360 codes were assigned to 189 research questions. On average, each question was coded 1.91 times