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Table 2 Attributes of bonding capital in vulnerable urban contexts

From: Social capital in vulnerable urban settings: an analytical framework

Form of social capital Dimension Key issues Indicators (in vulnerable urban contexts—slums and informal settlements)
Bonding capital (micro and cognitive level) Personal relationships (quality of relationships structure and nature of relationships) Norms of trust (particularised trust among familiars, generalised trust of strangers, strategic trust, civic/institutional trust)
Norms of reciprocity
Proportion of households relying on others for help (e.g. for treatment, care and support)
Proportion of individuals who believe in the ability of others (e.g. breadwinners and other income earners)
Proportion of individuals who provided and received support (e.g. sharing food, remittances)
Proportion of individuals or households relying on assets as a coping strategy
Proportion of individuals purchasing food on credit as a coping strategy
Proportion of households worrying about food
Social networks (types, size, spatial, structural, relational) Centrality (degree, betweenness, closeness) perceived importance of individuals
Distance, i.e. connectedness of individuals
Attributes of networks (e.g. successfulness and attractiveness)
Social influence (conformity obedience compliance) Normative (change to fit in a group—to be liked or accepted)
Informational (change because of desire to be correct, belief that others have right information)
Proportion of individuals who changed thoughts, attitudes, feelings and behaviour because of interaction with others; doing things for others with a choice to deny; doing things for others without an opportunity to refuse