1. Respectful clothing appropriate to region|
2. Do host people need certain clothing to maintain their dignity?
1. Tank tops, short skirts inappropriate in Muslim country|
2. Cover people with torn or absent clothing with a blanket
1. What is the language?|
2. How to greet people?
|Learn words for hello, how are you, thank you, good bye|
|Gender, age, power||
1. Can male responders treat and care for women?|
2. Who is the community leader?
3. Who is the decision maker in the family?
1. Be aware that in some cultures, community leaders may traditionally be involved in medical decision-making|
2. Identify patient preferences regarding how medical information is shared
|Touching and behavior||
1. What are the usual customs for touching?|
2. Is it ok to hold someone’s hand?
3. What are special considerations for interaction with women, children, elderly?
1. In some cultures, “thumbs up” is a rude gesture|
2. Touching someone’s head or face is rude in South Asia
3. Showing the soles of your feet is rude in the Middle East
|Beliefs and religion||
1. Who are the different ethnic and religious groups of the region?|
2. What are the beliefs and practices that are important?
3. How might they understand or explain what has happened?
1. Ask if the patient would want a religious leader present at end-of-life|
2. Ask about patient/family’s beliefs about treatment of the body (viewing, handling, burial) after death (WHO et al. 2018)